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Laboratory equipment

Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES) - A Varian Vista-MPX  is used to determine concentration of trace metals in sample solutions. The ICP is able to measure trace concentrations of the metal elements in the parts-per-million (ppm) and parts-per-billion (ppb) range. The ICP can measure the elemental metal content in particles, compounds and ions, basically all forms of elemental matter will be measured by this instrument. The ICP is used to determine total silver in silver colloids. Ionic silver content in silver colloids is determined by first removing the particles by centrifugation and then measuring the silver content remaining in the solution.

Analytical Balance - An A&D Model HM-202 balance reads grams to five decimal places (10 microgram resolution) and is used for general lab work and preparing dilutions by weight (mass).

Centrifugation The lab has several centrifuges with the capacity to provide a wide range of separation functions from continuous flow processing to ultra G-force separation.

Ultra G-force Beckman Optima LE-80K Centrifuge is a microprocessor-controlled ultracentrifuge used to generate centrifugal forces up to 602,000 Gs for particle separation. Maximum of 80,000 rpm is produced by this unit with the rotor operating in a refrigerated vacuum chamber.

High capacity - A Hermle ZK-364 Centrifuge with swing bucket rotor provides a total rotor capacity of 720 mL and 4500 G-forces in a refrigerated chamber.

Conductivity - Conductivity Meter: YSI 3200 Conductivity Instrument

Evaporation/Concentration - A Buchi Rotavapor Model 124 with Buchi digital vacuum controller and Lauda IC-30 immersion cooler comprise the evaporator system that is used in general laboratory tasks involving evaporation and concentration of solutions.

Particle Size Characterization - Malvern Zetasizer Nano ZS In the Nano ZS, the particle size of colloidal particles is measured using laser dynamic light scattering (DLS). Particles down to 0.3 nanometers in diameter can be measured. A particle this small is approximately 2.6 times the diameter of a single atom.

pH/ISE - Orion 710A with an ion specific electrode for silver is used to make ISE silver measurements. A pH probe is used for both high and low ionic pH measurements.

Turbidity -Turbidity Meter: Orbeco-Hellige Digital Direct Reading Turbidity Meter, Model 965 measures turbidity in three ranges (20, 200, and 1000 NTU).

Zeta Potential - Malvern Zetasizer Nano ZS measures zeta potential. Zeta potential is a measure of the magnitude of the repulsion or attraction between particles in a colloid. Its measurement brings detailed insight into the dispersion mechanism and is the key to electrostatic dispersion control.

Ancillary shop capabilities include an in-house machine shop and electronic laboratory for design, and manufacture of in-house designed laboratory and production equipment.